< 2: Valaklwuuxa by Logan Kearsley May28 by Jeffrey Jones 4: Ɣu by Alexis Hugelmann >

Translated by: Jeffrey Jones
(1)	selpa ha henta yos te ňūga sima dan bagorta fenka.
(2)	ikma te fenka dau godīši legorči.
(3)	misa ha bagorta!
(4)	ikma te bre'ka dau dōnusa ha bagorta!
(5)	ikma te fenka dau fiblitkima on žolta por ha hlāya!
(6)	ikma te bre'ka dau čāba lā hlāya?
(7)	ikma te fenka dau baha has tlentar ha nida na taba sō trōya gin danna
lexlespa te moga çōbra.
(8)	ikma te bre'ka dau fixrekma on bengofīla on rāga çōbra!
(9)	gin hena te bre'ka yos te fenka ňūga lexlespa legema.
Smooth translation:
(1) It's about a joke and the cleverest of the artificial waterfowl.
(2) The waterfowl said, "I learned that I was created."
(3) I'm an artifical one!
(4) A game fowl said, "You're indeed an artificial one!"
(5) The waterfowl said, "Any courageous ones spy from a mountain!"
(6) The game fowl asked, "Where's that mountain?"
(7) The waterfowl said, "Some who have been cut by a knife stand in that land
    and are always discomforted by their pants."
(8) The game fowl said, "Anyone who didn't put on long pants fights!"
(9) And the game fowl and the clever waterfowl joked that being alive is
Translation of previous torch
This translation had both an easy part and some extremely difficult parts. The
easy part was because May28 and Valaklwuuxa are syntactically similar. However,
the text was full of non-sequiturs and there were a couple of phrases I couldn't
translate into either English or May28; these were replaced or omitted. Finally,
I had to revise the May28 grammar in order to make the translation less clumsy.
Interlinear Missing
Glossary/mini dictionary
This lists the verbs and particles. Verbs are cited using the -a ending. The
action type letter and class number are combined, e.g. T3 = telic and
transitive. A = agent and P = patient.

baha	S2	stand
blitka	S3	A spies on P
bre'ka	H1	game fowl
cjaaba	S1	where (interrogative)
dan	det	universal quantifier, "all"
danna	H1	always
dau	conj	begin quote (direct speech)
diisa	S3	A knows fact P
fenka	H1	waterfowl
fiila	D3	wear
gema	A1	alive
gin	conj	and (clauses)
gora	T3	create
ha	det	indefinite
hena	T3	A makes joke P
hjoobra	H1	pants
hlaaya	H1	mountain
iga	T3	A tells P (complement clause)
laa	det	distal demonstrative, "yon"
misa	S1	be me/us (1st person singular or exclusive plural)
moga	S3	A possesses P
na	conj	while, when (temporal)
nida	H1	knife
njuuga	A1	clever
nusa	S1	be you (2nd person)
on	det	non-referential, "any"
por	prep	from
raaga	A1	long
s	Q	many, much (plural)
selpa	H3	A is a story about P
sima	H3	P is part of A	
soo	det	medial demonstrative, "that/those"
taba	S3	A is in P
te	det	definite
tlenta	T3	cut
trooya	H1	land
xlespa	A3	A is discomforted by P
xrega	D3	fight
yos	conj	and (phrases)
zjolta	A1	courageous
Grammar notes
Morphosyntactically, there are only verbs, which are inflected, and various
kinds of uninflected particles. Verbs are classified 2 ways: (a) according to
action type and (b) according to agreement class.

The agreement classes are:
1. sole argument is patient (P)
2. sole argument is agent (A)
3. both agent and patient are specified or implied (transitive or bivalent)

Agreement for bivalent verbs is direct-inverse with a 2 > 1 > 3 hierarchy.


An ASCII romanization is used here to avoid the diacritical marks normally used
(cj, nj, sj, zj, and hj are the substituted digraphs, along with double


Each action type defaults to a particular aspect when the aspect isn't marked.
The action types are:
H. habitual or long-term process (habitual aspect)
A. scalar (static; stative aspect)
S. static (non-scalar; stative aspect)
D. dynamic (non-telic; progressive aspect)
T. telic (aoristic aspect, may imply past tense)

The marked aspects that occur are:
ba-	perfect
fi-	habitual
go-	aoristic (may imply past tense and/or inceptive derivation)

Other prefixes are:
doo-	affirmative polarity
le-	indicates head of complement clause

The agreement suffixes that appear here are:
-a	3rd person proximate agent and 3rd person obviative patient OR
	3rd person intransitive subject
-ar	3rd person obviative agent and 3rd person proximate patient
-(i)ma	3rd person agent, no patient (antipassive)
-ji	1st person singular agent and 3rd person patient
-ta	3rd person patient, no agent (passive)
-cji	1st person singular patient, no agent (passive)

Other suffixes are:
-il	instrumental applicative (replaces patient with instrument)


The syntax is head-modifier, with the head of the clause preceding the sole core
argument phrase (if any is expressed). Core argument phrases must agree with the
head verb in person and number. When both arguments of a transitive verb are 3rd
person, the proximate argument is usually supplied by an earlier clause with the
core argument being obviative.

A prepositional phrase and/or complement clause may follow the argument phrase.
For a few verbs (such as "tell"), the complement clause acts as a 3rd argument;
otherwise, it replaces the obviative argument (in which case, the proximate
argument phrase may appear).

A phrase begins with a determiner, which may be followed by a possibly enclitic
quantity word. The phrase's content is provided by subsequent relative clauses.
A relative clause consists of the head verb possibly followed by its sole core

If the relative clause verb is intransitive, no phrase is possible. Otherwise,
assuming both arguments are 3rd person, the proximate argument is relativized,
so that the phrase must be obviative.

The determiners used are listed in the vocabulary.

The quantity words used are:
s	enclitic plural, "many"

A scalar verb preceding a partitive (sima) construction is semantically